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Meet our very special friends

All the information, including demographics, on the website are the result of research and daily visitation with the macaques.

Macaca fascicularis

Commonly known as, the long-tailed macaque or crab-eating macaque.




3 to 4 kg


4,8 to 7 kg

Average characteristics

Length: 40-47 cm

Tail length: 50-60 cm

Fur color: 

The body fur of long-tailed macaques tends to be grey-brown to reddish brown.

Some have a yellowish tinge.

The chest and stomach are paler and often have a bluish-white tinge.

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The macaques of Phana

The Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) of Phana are rather special. They live in a sanctuary protected by Chao Poo, the legendary founder of the Phana village. People view the monkeys with a kind of sacredness and every offering made to the 'Grand father' of the Phana people is usually much appreciated by the monkeys (even the candles). 
Many people come to the forest seeking the blessing of Chao Poo and they also bring treats to his children, the macaques. The forest of Chao Poo is protected by his spirit but also by volunteer and research association, such as researchers that survey the macaque environment. In the graphic you will see the results of a survey made by M.Sc students of Exeter University. 


Long-Tailed Macaques can be found in many Asian countries including: 


Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Brunei, Bangladesh, Singapore, Viet Nam, Timor and the Phillipines. 

Long-tailed macaques are arboreal animals, which means they live in trees and sleep in small groups fairly high up where they feel safe. Trees provide safety for the monkeys as well as food. These monkeys are fairly terrestrial though, spending a large portion of their day on the ground. 

Due to deforestation and human encroachment, macaques become susceptible to living in close proximity to humans. They are very adaptive and have learned how to live next to humans, by consuming human foods and using human structures for their own purposes. 

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Living in groups

Long-tailed macaques live in groups of about thirty members. Females stay in their birth groups but at sexual maturity, males leave their birth-group, and join either bachelor groups or new social groups. These "family groups" spend most of their times in troops of two hundred to two hundred and fifty monkeys. We presently identified four or five such troops in Don Chao Poo forest. 

Since males leave their birth-group, they are subject to more predation, disease and injury than are females. Once a male finds another group in which to live, he may replace some of the existing high-ranking males. Male replacement is a process in which a male adult from outside the group successfully takes over a resident male’s harem position. These events are highly aggressive activities. The adults who take part are usually injured. They are rarely killed but often die later from their injuries.

Since long-tailed macaques live in large groups divided into many smaller family groups, it is important for them to be able to keep in touch with other members of the group, for example when the group is on the move, looking for food or returning to their sleeping place. So they have “calls” which let group members know where others are, and other calls which let them know that food has been found. Mothers call to their off-spring,especially at sleeping time. It is also important for all members of the group to know when there is danger. There is one call which all monkeys respond to by running to climb trees as quickly as possible. In Don Chao Poo forest this usually means that a dangerous dog is nearby.


Females indicate readiness to mate by having red genetalia and bottoms. Females have an average inter-birth interval of 390 days

Number of offspring: (average) 1

Gestation period: (average) 162 days

Birth mass: (average) 320 g

Time to weaning: (average) 420 days

Age at sexual or reproductive maturity

       male: (average) 6 years

       female: (average) 4 years

Taking care of offspring

Infant monkeys can walk within a day of birth, but mothers usually keep them in close proximity. If the mother needs to move she takes her baby with her, by either letting the infant cling to her belly (carriage carry) or letting the infant ride on her back (passive carriage).


Young monkeys also have to learn how to be an adult monkey! They do this by becoming more independent, making friends, and watching mom. When they start to move independently they learn to climb and jump, they start to play with other babies so they can make friends and build relationships, but they still stay close to mom so she can protect them and teach them basic necessities (i.e. searching for food).

Want to meet the monkeys of Phana in Don Chao Poo forest? 


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